Paratyphoid is a bacterial disease and we already have devoted considerable attention to it over the years in our newsletters .
But in everyday practice there appear to remain many questions on this disease.
Autumn is the time for a good basis for the new season. Except selection among the pigeons and control of fecal samples on worms and coccidiosis it is wise to make some swabs to control a possible contamination of yellow. But autumn is traditionally the time of the year to show whether the pigeons are latent( = hidden) contaminated with Salmonella. Precisely in this period, this disease is best demonstrated. After all, the animals tend to be more susceptible to infection by the assoult that the molt commits to the resistance. In addition, in this time of year no antiseptic cure is given. This gives the paratyphoid bacteria also more time to recover. The chance that the bacteria in manure can be shown is increasing.
The disease symptoms
Before we go to the preventive checks, we will discuss condition. Paratyphoid can express itselves in many ways.
A clinical outbreak of the disease is a source of annoyance, the subclinical or latent (hidden) form is much more annoying.
In those cases little is to notice. Usually only that the performance isnot as usual. Mediocre performance is still achievable, but top performance isn't. The pigeons are uncomfortable. A little pale in the plumage and often less vivid. They can throw down a little less and fly worse.
Phenomena that can occur in several diseases.
The different color of the stool that often is slimy is something that can happen to with other diseases.
In short, the birds do not do well.
If it was possible to give a certain diagnose through a single dropping culture it would not be such a nasty disease. But unfortunately the bacteria in the manure is not always detectable. Excretion of the bacterium does not always take place.That is why we recommend to collect the manure of five days.The chance to demonstrate the bacteria is bigger this way.
If the bacteria is demonstrated the proof that there is an infection is delivered. But in case of a negative culture, it does not say 100% that no infection with typhoid was present. If this check is often done without a bacteria is detected, the possibility that the pigeons really are free of paratyphoid ,is gradually increasing.
In the subclinical form of paratyphoid the pigeons are infected with the bacterium and the pigeon has except those vague symptoms little or no complaints.
If the resistance of the birds now goes down suddenly, a visible infection of paratyphoid is going to perform in the so-called clinical form.
In such cases, the healthy pigeons take the bacteria in through the mouth after this the infection begins in the gut. Larger parts of the intestine can become inflamed.
Low resistance or high infection pressure can cause that the bacteria moves through the lymph vessels to the internal organs. This is associated with sepsis (blood poisoning) and specific organ degradation. Depending on where the infection foci are formed we get different appearances. Thus we have the intestinal form, the organ form (liver, lungs, testicles, ovaries), the joint form and form of the brain. But in essence they are the expression of inflammatory lesions.
There are also some characteristic phenomena such as purulent inflammation of the skin, and inflammation of the eyelids. We have already seen Salmonella cultures grow many times.
The recovered birds of the clinical infection may remain carriers of the bacteria for years and so regularly infect travel baskets and the loft.
It is also considered possible that contamination through the shell or fertilization is possible.
If we discuss the contamination on the basis of different forms,it can be said that in
the intestinal form often the first to notice is that a few pigeons lose weight or the dropping is slimy, thin, greenish and sometimes bloody. Often mortality occurs quickly .
In the fall mainly the older pigeons will exhibit symptoms. Often the main complaint is losing weight.
In the breeding period the symptoms may break out. The infection can then move to the youngsters which then quickly die. Usually from the fifth day. A symptom of this period,is many drinking and the aqueous dropping. Also, the fertilization outcomes can be dissapointing. Sheer eggs or 1 egg instead of 2 eggs.
In the organ type we often see that the liver is affected by typical inflammatory lesions as a result. The liver works badly so the pigeons generally get ill.
When the genitals are affected fertilization results will be disappointing. Often the infertility is permanent.
The kidneys can become damaged so that the animals get in poorer condition and become more slim.
The spherical form is characterized by typical lesions at the elbow joint and the hock. The complaints arise from the overfilled joints. The pigeons cannot run or fly skewed.
Some times we succeed to grow a pure culture of Salmonella out of the joints.
The brain form of paratyphoid may manifest itself in turn necks. A symptom that even can occur with a paramyxovirus infection . The swivel neck is a result of impairment of the vestibular system. When the youngsters have paramyxovirus however, many remain attentive. In contrast,with paratyphoid, they will soon die.
The separation made between different forms is fundamentally unfair. These are all manifestations of the same disease. And it is certainly not true that all affected pigeons in a loft have the same symptoms. It is usually a mixture of various symptoms. Sometimes only a single symptom is present and the diagnosis is difficult.
Often the diagnosis is made by section. When in doubt, it is therefore so important to examine the birds.
In general one can say that youngsters have more severe symptoms than older birds. They are also more likely to succumb to the disease. The older birds are often chronic carriers of the bacteria as they survive chronic infection.
The definitive diagnosis is made by bacteriological examination. Especially in case of doubt it is important to carry out a bacteria culture on a sample collected from about five days. Only this way we can find out if there are shedder among the pigeons.
Affected birds must be removed from the loft. Individual treatment of pigeons with marbocap may lead to recovery of the pigeons. But only if only the intestine is affected, these pigeons are fit to fly. In all other cases, they are only suitable for farming, at least if there has not occured permanent damage to the reproductive organs.
Furthermore, the hygiene has to be increased in the loft. Cleaning, disinfecting and burning certainly help but is not everything.
Feeding in the mangers in these situations is obvious.
Overcrowding and stress should be avoided wherever possible.
In addition, the provision of good acting drugs given to all the pigeons for a long time. Also increasing the overall resistance contributes to fighting the infection. Providing a resistance drink for a while is possible.
The medications to control paratyphoid are eligible trimsulfa and enrofloxacin (Baytril). In our center there is a slight preference for trimsulfa.
At least 14 days medication should be provided. In clinical outbreaks a vaccination is recommended after 14 days after which a good week of medication . Repetition of the grafting in clinical infections is recommended to build up the maximum immune support. Vaccinate youngsters at the age of 6 weeks. The elder birds in the off-season but at least three weeks before pairing. In this way, the highest possible protection is given to the youngsters. The treatment of paratyphoid discussed above is no guarantee that the infection will stay away . Paratyphoid is a persistent disease.
In case of a clinical outbreak it would be wise to check the droppings through cultures with great regularity.
Pigeons purchased,are best kept quarantined initially.